The production process of Bat Trang ceramics:
Select the clay:
It is important first to form a source of pottery clay pottery. The production centers of ancient pottery is often produced on the basis of exploitation of land resources in place. Bat Trang pottery village, too, the reason for the villagers selected areas Bo Bat Bat Trang village settlements now make pottery development because they first discovered white clay mine here. By the 18th century, local clay sources have been exhausted Bat Trang people should be forced to find new sources of land. Unlike their ancestors, Bat Trang people still residing at the location and convenient transportation through the river port, where boats emit the exploitation of the new land. From Bat Trang opposite the Red River on the Son Tay, Phuc Yen, turn over the Duong River, downstream to Eastern North Kinh Thay, white clay mining in Ho Lao, Bamboo Village.
Bamboo Village clay has high viscosity, solubility in water, fine-grained, gray white, the fire at about 1650 ° C. Chemical composition (% averaged by weight) of the clay Bamboo Village as follows: Al203: 27.07; Si02: 55.87; Fe203 1.2; Na2O 0.7; CaO 2.57; MgO 0.78; K2O: 2.01; Ti02: 0.81. But the best land is Bat Trang potters clay Bamboo Village preferred but has some limitations as contained relatively high iron oxide content, the drying shrinkage of large and of itself is not white.
Processing and preparation of clay:
In soil material is usually impurities, in addition, depending on the requirements of each different type of ceramic that can have different soil mixing to create appropriate products. At Bat Trang, processing methods of traditional land is treated through immersion in water tank systems, including 4 pools at different heights.
The first tank in a higher position was "tank type" is used to soak the raw clay and water (soak time of about 3-4 months). Clay under the action of water will be broken grain texture and its original start the process of decay (called folk long to soak the soil crushed). When the land was "ripe" (invoking folk), soil type are true, so true to the real soil particles dissolved in water to form a liquid mixture. Then remove the liquid mixture into the second tank called a "clarifier" or "filter tank". Here clay started settling down, some impurities (especially organic matter) emerged, proceed to remove them.
Then ladle lake sedimentation tank to tank dilution from Tuesday called "an expose" the Bat Trang is often dry soil here about 3 days, then transferred the land to the fourth tank "incubation tank". At the incubation tank, iron oxide (Fe2O3) and other impurities are reduced by means of fermentation (ie the removal of microorganisms harmful substances in the soil). Storage time as long as possible.
In general, the stage of processing of the earth Bat Trang pottery workers through many stages are usually not complicated. During processing, depending on the type of pottery that people can kaolin added much less extent different.
Traditional methods of shaping the Bat Trang village is handmade on the turntables. In the stage of shaping, Bat Trang pottery workers use common way of "claw hand, Tit Babbler be" on the turntable, before this work is often undertaken by women. Themed sitting on a chair above the table and turned legs and stroked land turntable styling products. Land before being put on the turntable for very fine pitcher, threw the book into diamond ("bat") to shorten. Then it is put into the middle of the turntable, and then pat the soil adhering hybrid compression and pull the new plastic finely ground "type celebration" land and "a taste" mainly with two fingers on the right. After the soil by hand pulling and porcelain to the extent necessary crockery dan workers will use to shape the product. Is the "good crop" and "disadvantage" is finished, cut the legs out put on the "belly". The women use the turntable claw shape of the original work is normally prevalent in each kiln pottery Vietnam (not only Bat Trang) but are unfamiliar with some of the potter West. However, this technique has been lost and is now no longer Bat Trang pottery workers can do the job anymore. "Be Tit Babbler" is also a form of claws on the turntable and light momentum mainly due to worker man in charge.
The barber "squeeze up" ceramic artisans skilled technical and artistic high. Sometimes they cover molding a ceramic finished product, but also when they are covered separately molded parts of a product and then proceed pieced together again. Currently at the request of industrial production or crafting pottery, ceramic artists can fill the form to squeeze a plaster casting service for mass production.
The plastic molded ceramic products in (mold plaster mold or wood) are as follows: mold placed between the turntable, pinned back, then hurled neighboring land cavity in the middle of the mold to hold on foot , dredging land to benefit the rim, and pulling the rotating turntable to the extent necessary to make the product. Today the village of Bat Trang pottery commonly used technique "casting" artifacts. Want engineered ceramic artifacts must first casting plaster mold. Mold is made up from simple to complex. The simplest type is a double mold, complex types are usually more or excuse, depending on the shape of the product to create. How to create designs in the same time can create the same series of products, fast and simplified. In addition, we also use pour method: dump "excess lake" or "full tank" to shape the product.
Proceed exposed clay products so dry, cracked, does not alter the shape of the product. Best practices that traditionally the Bat Trang is often used as a drying artifacts on price and cool place. Nowadays many families used measure objects in the kiln drying, the temperature rose slowly to allow the water to evaporate slowly.
Shaped clay products to bring "latent dimension" and revised to complete. Potters put products into that light on turntable turntable rotating momentum and has just push on foot to build balance, using the stick pat on foot "size" for the land at the foot of "size" and the tight circle back back (called "sliding"). Potters conducting gestures trim the excess space, accretion vacancy, folded parts of the product (such as a warm shower, separate straps ...), drill holes in the product, trimming the contours flowers literature and fine arts for surface water products. The product repair without a turntable is called "making the line", to use the turntable is called "make every desk."
At the request decoration, can cover more ground in a certain area on a few products and then trimmed to shape (up reliefs), sometimes to inculcate the ornamentation on the product ...
Bat Trang pottery workers felt tip pen to draw directly on the clay products background textured pattern. Ceramic painter must have skilled, patterned motifs to harmonize with modern ceramics, the textured decorative pottery is raised to the level of art, each one is a work. Bat Trang pottery workers have also used a lot of different forms of decoration, efficient indexing of art, applied enamel color flow, painted enamel ...
Recently, Bat Trang appear techniques based paint ceramic bone was reheated 1st or steamed flower technique, an image decor decal printed on paper, imported from abroad. Two types though beautiful, but this is not the tradition of Bat Trang. These cars are not considered artistic and creative heritage of Bat Trang pottery, ceramics and Vietnam in general.
Glaze are ash characteristics of Bat Trang pottery, besides brown yeast, yeast components include additional 5% ash glaze ice rot (a mixture of iron oxide and manganese oxide obtained in Phu Lang, Hebei) . From the 15th century potters Bat Trang had created the famous blue glazes. This enzyme is made from red stone (containing cobalt oxide) rotten rock (containing manganese oxide) finely ground and mixed with glaze coat. Men inflation color temperature 1250 ° C. Early 17th century who lived in Bat Trang lime, rice husk ash and kaolin Temple Society (of Cliff stuffed, Kinh Mon, Hai Duong) pale pink modulation is a new type of ceramic mosaic.
Bat Trang pottery workers wont use the built along the wet method by the filter material was carefully crushed and mixed with stir together water soluble wait until it settles down in the water off the three lines above and in bottom only get the "horror" hovering in the middle, that's glaze to coat the outside things. During the fabrication process Bat Trang ceramic potters found for men than it should flow easily processed flour ash powder smaller than the earth, so that the "small ash to herd".
When the rough product was complete, the potter can reheated products at low temperature and then brought enameled rough product or even complete it directly onto the glaze before firing. Bat Trang pottery workers often choose methods enameled directly onto the finished product. Is the rough product prior to glaze must be cleaned of dust brush bristles. These products ceramic bone colored glaze before to have an enamel lining for shade from the color of the ceramic bone, and also to calculate the energy of each enzyme to each type of bone ceramic coated, enzyme levels, weather and difficulty level of the bone ceramic glaze technique ... take many forms, such as glazing, violent men should be reinforced ceramic surface-sized embedded glaze for pottery small but is the most common form of glossy enamel in addition to products, called "hold men", and is more difficult form of "turning men" and "foundry men". Go enamel glaze that forms inside and outside the same time, there are only men enameled cast inside the product. This is the prime method of glaze potters Bat Trang, just as both art techniques, is preserved through generations, even had the secret in their careers here.
The potter conducted amended final product before it enters the furnace. First, each product carefully to see if there is a place with enamel glaze brushed must apply to that position. Then they conducted "cut probe" that scrape off the excess glaze place, this work called "fix every men".
When the preparation is complete, the furnace into the processes that determine the success or failure of a batch of pottery. So the moment the stove to become spiritually significant to the potter. Oldest gaffer lit three incense and respectfully pray the god of heaven and earth and fire line help. The master fire on the principle of gradually raising the temperature to furnace temperature reaches the highest and when ripe ceramic temperature back down slowly is the key to success of stitching furnace.
Previously Bat Trang pottery workers specialize in the use of the oven as the oven frog (or toad oven), oven and stove men elected to the ceramic kilns, later, appeared many different types of furnaces, more modern and single simple in operation.
Kiln frog is the oldest type of pottery used in a popular everywhere, now lost all but the last vestiges of indirect sources can imagine oven shaped like a frog term about 7 meters at its widest width of 3-4 meters, 1.2 meters wide the doors, 1 meter high. Flat bottom horizontal furnace, blast furnace arch ranges from 2 meters to 2.7 meters. Inside the furnace has a side door 1 meter wide, 1.2 meters high serve the husband and unloading kilns. Fireplace Chimney 3 3-3.5 m high vertical. In every election furnace is divided into five product areas classified as: every frame, every neck, middle row, rows and rows mouse running surface.
In the long process of using the oven frog, to overcome disadvantages of soil reinforcement and floor inside the oven, it is rather rustic brick and mortar layer composite.
Fireplace men appeared in the mid-19th century men have elected oven Ovens 9 meters long, 2.5 meters wide, 2.6 meters high is divided into 10 equal flanges. Location separation between the two flanges is hot (columns). Oven door width 0.9 meters high l meter. Cliff 10th-called collection chamber flange beans with smoke through the narrow gate through 3. To keep the heat, the furnace flange extends collecting chamber and hugged smoke. Brick wall in the grafted layer Bat Trang, siding, brick layers civil. The underside of hard oven was almost flat on the ring-shaped meniscus. The two side flanges hard oven from 2nd to 9th flange seal it opened two small circular door, diameter of 0.2 meters called maggot hole to throw fuel on the flange. Particularly, it is open hole flange beans beans (half a meter wide hole maggots). Oven temperature can reach above 1250-1300 ° C.
Fireplace elected, or pore, appeared in the early 20th century Fireplace vote divided into drawers, usually from 5 to 7 vote (sometimes up to 10 vote). Voting continuous furnace arch perpendicular to the axis of the furnace like pepper pieces joined together clamshell face. People use fire bricks to build up his dome of the oven. Oven for about 13 meters plus segment to build chimneys in the 2 meter long tail, the whole length of the oven up to 15 meters. Axial tilt of about 12-15? oven. The temperature of the furnace can reach 1300 election ° C.
Or blast furnace box: About 1975 people Bat Trang recent move to build pottery kiln for burning box. Ovens usually 5 meters wide by 0.9 meters high, inside the refractory brick walls like home. Fireplace open two doors, simple structure, footprint, cost of furnace not more convenient for family size. So almost every family has kilns, even every house has 2, 3 ovens. Oven temperature can reach 1250 ° C.
Fireplace shuttle (or gas stove), tunnel kiln (oven stew, continuous furnace): In recent years, Bat Trang appear more modern style stove oven shuttle, or tunnel kiln, with fuel gas gas or oil. During combustion, the temperature is monitored via pyrometer, adjust the temperature which is essentially the process of increasing fuel reduction is performed automatically or semi-automatically, furnace work becomes much simpler. However, this is not the traditional oven of Bat Trang.
Previously, the Bat Trang pottery using a square tiles assembled as many baked. Tiles after two or three times using the oven reaches the high heat and almost as hard as crockery (which is the famous Bat Trang bricks).
Recently bags are usually made of baked clay refractory dark gray powder mixed with broken bricks or baked crushed shell (called chamotte) with the rate of 25-35% and 65-75% clay chamotte. People use a sufficient amount of water to mix and beat the mixture leukomalacia and bring in (put) a closed bag or a baked brick oven intestinal transplantation. How often cylindrical furnaces for fire exposure conditions are the product. Depending on how baked products which are not the same size but more common is the type with a diameter of 15 to 30 cm, 2-5 cm thick and 40 cm high from 5 to. How can a baked for 15 to 20 times.
If the product is burned in a furnace or oven tunnel shuttle, which usually does not require firing.
For this type of frog furnace can use all kinds of straw, bamboo, furnace, then Bat Trang straw used in combination with other types of "wood therapy" and "clave the wood," and later, the outline of firewood and wood meals gradually become the main source of fuel for the reactors in Bat Trang pottery. Firewood firewood meals and complementary therapy after being piled outdoors, exposed to frost and sun for the new frontier offers used. For this type of furnace men, in voting, they clave the wood burning regimen also be used to take over the maggot hole, hole beans in the oven.
When switched to using blast furnace, the main fuel is coal was just to thin wood stove. Coal brought carefully kneaded with mud under certain ratio may play a mold or squeeze into small cakes dried. Many people squeeze wet coal and break up dry wall to wall absorbs water quickly and soon the hard coal and can be used immediately.
Dry clay products after processing is complete for bringing in the kiln. Product Placement in the kiln, depending on how the product size and shape, the size of which baked on the principle of full use of space in the oven while also saving fuel to achieve high thermal efficiency. Because the composition of each different type of furnace flue stack up to each type of furnace also has its own characteristics. For this type of oven frogs, they put the word out to the door nape oven, hobs also for men, people rated the product from flange to flange 2nd 10th (10th individual posters for poor fire up the product often bare without firing out how). In pregnant pig cage (first vote) where spent fuel combustion, high temperature so sometimes people put all kinds of products in the oversized bag. The product is placed in the oven like the oven elected board. As for the oven box, all the products are placed in containers without lids cylindrical furnaces and gradually piled from floor to roof, wall oven and place around the space between the shell calcined pellets are inserted coal.
Bat Trang village, there was the husband Fireplace ward, each ward generally consists of 7 people (3 foremen, 3 and 1 buffer mechanic apprentice). They are divided into three groups in which each group has one foreman and one worker buffer, and apprentices have brought many tasks baked and served joiner for all 3 groups. The first group is responsible husband bottom (crating baked products and three layers from the bottom up), the second group is responsible for between load in (ranked third among classes), while the third group is the group called surface (ranked third last class in the highest position in the oven). Fireplace in Bat Trang Ward load in gathered mainly potters at Saison (Quoc Oai, Ha Tay) and Van Dinh (US Germany, Ha Tay) serves to Bat Trang pottery.
Overall for the type of frog furnace, furnace above, the election process kiln furnace are the same and with his experience, the "masters" can do all the fire in the furnace whole process. In the above oven for about half the day after a fire burned it simmer in the oven for drying elected pig cage and products in the oven. Then they gradually increase in fire elected pig cage until flames spread to the fourth flange firewood in the next election pig cage is stopped. Continue throw clave the wood through the hole maggots. The production both by his experience check out the posters and clave the wood in order to stop throwing flange when said product in the mural that was nine. Towards the end of the ripening faster. When the beans in the flange was about nine, the workers decided to throw all within half an hour deluge 9-10 bundles bean meals through hole and finish of the wood. In Ward furnace, the ward head (made all) in charge of engineering, the two persons fired at the door (lower combustion), who throws four clave the wood through the hole maggots (burned out).
After calcination finished it shut off the oven door, maggot holes, hole see the fire to cool slowly. The process of cooling in the furnace lasted 2 days and 2 nights, then opened the door and 1 day to 1 more night and then proceed to the oven.
For the furnace, the furnace becomes much simpler because the completion stage of the oven kiln up-load also means that ended up fueling. However, due to the characteristics of kiln, furnace workers have experienced though also very difficult to master fire, this is the most difficult problem in stitching techniques in Bat Trang village. People use fire brick oven door shut again and set up the stove with wood. Catches on fire and loading coal from the bottom up. Coal is burned off in the oven at the end of the furnace. Time furnace since the fire until completely off the fire lasted for about 3 days 3 nights. After the oven has cooled down, the oven is rated classification and repair defects (if possible) prior to the distribution and use.
The characteristics of Bat Trang pottery:
Based on the general characteristics of bone ceramics, glazes, decorative threads and a special thanks to the line of identity documents, can draw the basic characteristics of Bat Trang pottery.
Most, Bat Trang pottery is handmade production style, which is clearly creative talents of workers passed down through the generations. Due to the nature of the source material and create reinforced ceramic styling are handmade on the turntable, with the use of yeast in water mining experience to Bat Trang pottery distinctions are fully reinforced, solid and heavy, often leaning white enamel ivory colored, opaque. Bat Trang pottery village also has its own strain of yeast moss green with brown and white until mosaic with ceramic foam core is gray-brown. Based on meaningful use, can divide the type of Bat Trang ceramics as follows:
• Household Pottery: Includes all kinds of discs, flower pots, Europe, jars, ang, bowls, cups, trays of tea, warm, cigarettes, alcohol nam, lime pot, vase, vases, jars and cymbals.
• Pottery used as worshiping: Including candelabra, candlesticks, incense burners, top, covered, pottery wheels and earn. In particular, candlesticks, incense burners and products are top value for collectors of contemporary across multiple units have reason to know their identity documents the author's name, hometown and years of manufacture, lot they are inscribed the names of all those orders. It is a peculiarity of Bat Trang pottery.
• Ornaments: Includes the model, long family, as listeners statues, horse statues, statues of Maitreya, Diamond object, object tigers, elephants, the three-headed statues, gargoyles his monkey and snake statue dragon.
• Century 14-15: Forms of Bat Trang pottery decoration on covers like engraved, brown ceramic bowl engineered ceramics brown Ly-Tran, combined with carved and painted blue enamel. Around this time marking the birth of the line blue and white ceramics and pottery appeared brown flowers drawn in blue and white ceramics. Decorative motifs are limited in the scheme of flowers, followed Tran brown ceramics.
• 16th century, with the emergence of candlesticks, incense burners have larger, decorative embossing technique combines blue enamel paint reached the sophistication. Decorative motifs popular types: dragon, phoenix, alternating clouds, the winged horse, the animation, the lotus stands, flower wire, foil problem, landscape painting ... Decorate aquatic blue enamel paint also keep the pace of development, many kinds of geometric and floral documents are found close to the blue and white pottery appeared simultaneously in Chu Dau (Hai Duong).
• 17th century, engraving techniques, Bat Trang pottery embossed on the more delicate, fussy, close to touching the stone and wood. Decorative motifs followed the 16th century, and the appearance of new decorative themes: the sacred animals, tiger, nghê, cranes ... These topics embossing, to carpentry as daisies typical oval , 8 wing flowers, daisies, round leaf petals problem, lotus square, the swastika-Life (kanji) ... the use of blue enamel erosion, although subject to draw parallels with decorative touches well. 17th century ceramic mosaic appearance lines with a combination of decorative highlight topics such as dragons, sacred animals, flowers, daisy-architecture-mai. In this period also saw the introduction of ceramic colors, the most prominent is moss green with unique decorative theme: lotus, birds, listen, the people ...
• 18th century, decorative embossed almost dominate supplant painted blue enamel decoration on Bat Trang pottery. The casting technique well, Glued, carved well adapted to the use of yeast monochrome (gray and white ceramic mosaic). Decorative motifs outside the sacred animals, dragons, nghê also shows the tree symbolizes the four seasons. In addition shower themes, architecture, birds and flowers also see the appearance of text types bagua, the leaves turn ... Pattern road fringing thriving silk background, swastika, lotus sharp, back office, water waves. ..
• The 19th century, blue and white ceramics in Bat Trang recovery and development style combines many types of yeast used in decoration. Besides the topics already, Bat Trang also appear more topics imported from abroad under the Fisheries of classic Chinese as he worshiped, Su Yu goatherd, the first Bat Hai, he pulled Fishing nets .. .
For archaeologists, the collector of antiques and art researchers, dragon theme reflected the era was a lot of interest because it has the most significant changes. Dragon is a topic often decorated in many forms, especially on the leg lamp and incense burners.
• 16th century, the dragon is embossed or ceramics to carpentry as in the Highlands (China) or blue enamel paint, the dragon has wings growing out of the front legs, curved like a butterfly. Dragon and phoenix with open structure decorated dragon and phoenix dance.
• In the 17th century, the dragon kept many similarities dragon 16th century, but then stylized with 4 songs uneven, opened a new type of dragon, strange. Dragon horizontal layout, design dragon short, body-bending bow, hands before holding a beard. Dragon embossed in the picture opened or small bodies and lenses are a few strips of fire-type blade marks. The second half of the 17th century appeared close dragon design dragon sculpture on wood. Dragon tail slithering from the left to the right, head back to the middle. Dragon face the front left, front hand held mirrors. Around the dragon with many clouds floating blue enamel paint. One more dragon type is shown on the censer, to listen, model house is floating dragon tail, soaring above the front feet against, first curling up in a rectangular layout.
• 18th century, long dragon body, in the form of bas relief, head tilted, eyes bulging, curved horns and beard, thick mane neck, pointed fins, scales snake, dragon around the tops of clouds floating Figure 3 fire. Then drive dragon appeared include a mother and 6 dragon dragon, clouds form alternating opened. Dragon is shown on the average elephant incense burner or on scabbard church ... With embossed dragon, dragon head only show the front, two front legs outstretched, reveal narrow nose, bulging eyes, mouth or suck circle rabbit style of tattooing is also reflected on the top.
• The 19th century, dragons are depicted in the style circular object with a short body, her round, dragon head with wide mouth, nose, fins, scales round and decorated in relief or painted blue enamel top on average ceramic or mosaic polychromatic. In addition, the dragon's head with the front side view, horizontal spreading legs in two clouds, round mouth shut ...
Kind of glaze:
Bat Trang ceramics have 5 traits characteristic is expressed through a different era to create different product characteristics: blue enamel start appearing in Bat Trang ceramics have lead to black dark green; brown glaze can follow the traditional style and techniques drawn in blue enamel; ivory glaze used on various types of pottery from the 17th century to the 19th century, this ceramic thin, light yellow color, glossy fit well with the meticulous decoration; moss green glaze is used in combination with ivory and brown glaze creates a unique concentric state of Bat Trang century mosaic 16-17 and is only traits that appear in Bat Trang from late 16th century and development continuously through the centuries 17-19.
This is the earliest type of yeast used in Bat Trang from Century 14. Men are blue glazes are added to the original color is cobalt oxide. Themed Bat Trang used simultaneously with blue enamel technique makes use pen tool to draw on pottery. Blue Men do not like to bare brown glaze that is always covered with white ceramic balls, with high levels of glass after firing. Men with blue shades from green to dark blue pencil. Besides the similarities with the blue and white ceramic vases produced in the furnace Chu Dau (Hai Duong), Bat Trang pottery blue flowers in early even has its own definition of the shape and ornamentation. The bowl, casual, vases, lamp blue and white ceramics of Bat Trang 14-15 centuries have common traits are easy to launch pen drawing style, whether landscape, leaf or flower wire drawing dragons.
Bat Trang pottery blue and white 16th century, with dark green color. Blue enamel used to paint clouds combined with decorative dragon float to carpentry, painting lotus, the ice road fringing the legs light blue enamel used in addition to drawing on the floating dragon decoration, floral wire and lotus feet of lamps and incense burners.
17th century was a time of blue enamel underdeveloped in Bat Trang. On a number of candlesticks, incense burners, jars, Bat Trang pottery objects (17th century) is also, enamel painted decorative ceramic brown spots covered in ivory cracked peeling, seats are covered enamel, color brown with blue pencil, especially leg lamp and incense burners, the blue enamel figure less elaborate and quite common situation blurry blue enamel flow, not realizing motifs. Meanwhile engraving embossing, to carpentry very meticulous, reached the peak.
At the end of the 18th century, during the height of the mosaic, Bat Trang appear decorating style combines well with blue paint as on the lampstand, blue enamel was restored back in Bat Trang pottery.
The 19th century, painted blue enamel decoration on the burners, Choe, bottle, bottles, incense, n?m leaning government ivory mosaic or ceramic top, colored glaze pottery. Net specific expression of Bat Trang pottery blue enamel is painted the colors and style, generally muted colors. Use blue enamel painted scenery of mountains and sea, houses, castles, character quite successful on average. Blue enamel with fresh colors used to paint decorative pot on top could be one of the objectives of the most beautiful blue and white ceramics of Bat Trang pottery in the late 19th century.
In trend influenced styles, themes and competitive market for Chinese ceramics, Bat Trang pottery in the 19th century, there are many cases using multiple glazes. For example, to express too inconvenient to load maritime workers used the Bat Trang ceramic bowl of brown and blue enamel decoration on the pot then enamelled white reef. Blue enamel with white enamel paint the code in another topic, target audience, spare fortune burners brown glaze, blue enamel paint willows, orchids, grass floating in the bowl picture Vu goatherd, brown glaze with blue enamel dark and light colors make the top of a massive multi-colored glaze. It is vivid evidence of the ingenuity of many hands potter life Bat Trang is inherited and constantly evolving.
One of the first enzyme used in Bat Trang is a brown glaze, enamel shades of color depends on the ceramic bone (bone Bat colon usually thick and dark brown). On the pottery dating to the 14th century early 15th century, used brown enamel paint over the decorative scheme combined with ivory enamel background including candlesticks, jars, pots, locks, disc ... Men shades of brown or red-brown color called betel residue (chocolate), not glossy enamel, enamel surface stains often lumpy. Men are also used brown and then scrape off the entire section forming enamel pattern carpentry projects. 14th century, Bat Trang potters known restrictions affecting the color brown enamel paint from wood by brown glaze on ivory enamel to turn reddish brown to yellow-brown glaze.
In the type of glaze pottery group many contradictions 16-17 century, men used brown mixed with moss green enamel, ivory enamel, creating different shades. Men brown position the only way split tape, paint the shower or the dragon, for censer rectangular brown enamel paint over part of the base ...
The 18th-century pottery continued use brown glaze many traditional manner, a number of artists to promote further exploration to enrich glazes, especially in pairs tiger statue built around 1740, men brown beneath the mosaic created the tiger skin color more diverse.
The 19th century, brown glaze used as background for the white and blue enamel decoration. The average, ivory mosaic vases, decorative themes shown: Fishing he worshiped, crane parts, Su Yu goatherd, the first sea ... Bat brown glaze used to paint on the trunk spare, willow or point added to the clouds, mantle inconvenience. The 19th century was a time marked brown men moved into a glaze color (often called yeast eel skin), widely used in Bat Trang until today.
White glaze (ivory):
This type of white men, many cases of yellowing ivory, terracotta shade when the temperature reached a high level, but also many cases of greyish-white, milky, turbid. Along with design and decoration, ivory enamel and create a distinct character of Bat Trang pottery. Men were found to use ivory overlaid blue enamel decoration or brown glaze, but in a lot of Bat Trang pottery found only use ivory enamel.
Bat Trang ceramics 17th century peaked in popular decorative techniques with the most obvious technical measures carvings, pasted. Men ivory used in the censer to the Government on the edge, in addition to the estimated contour and well decorated, very rarely covered ornament. Because the thin white enamel, bone and ceramic filter level training high level of quality baked good, some products ivory enamel coated thick decorative stand still cracks yeast.
18th century, ivory white men also find use in a number of different types of floating furniture and decorations. The censer round embossed dragon and moon, the rest ivory enamel.
In the 19th century, Bat Trang ceramics have not lost decor well to wood, ivory enamel also seen used on vases, vases, incense burners, circular object. Lidded pots with clouds and emerald dragon decorated wooden stand to rest ivory enamel. On the vases, incense burners spare straps, rabbits censer; monkey statue pair of solid body, dragons architectural decoration, the first three subjects, Guanyin statue sitting in lotus were found using yeast ivory, gray.
Moss green glaze:
14-19 century moss-green glaze is used quite outstanding with ivory and brown enamel. Men moss green, ivory and brown enamel creates its own kind of behavior Tam Bat Trang pottery 16-17 century. On moss green enamel candlesticks paint over the floating lotuses, tape strips lotus flower circle of flowers round the wheel, the dragon, the floating flower edging around the shoulder line.
Men also use moss green painted clouds, paint the array angles valances, soles and wide of the dragon family; men in dark moss color square columns 2 storey house model or an array of rectangular road fringing censer. Men moss green, pale colors, on foot came to hear. On the censer round moss green glaze see point 4 S-shaped floating in the middle of the body and legs with a pair of seats in the abdomen. Men are dark green moss color seen on some array bowl decorated float, round shaped burners craft and decorative fringe on the front foot floating object technology.
Men moss green, though in different shades but it gives the appearance of great significance because only Bat Trang pottery found in 16-17 centuries and can view data guess this is a pretty solid dating sure to Bat Trang pottery in many different forms.
This is a unique enzyme produced by the difference in shrinkage between bone and ceramic glaze. So far the document ancient ceramics in Vietnam confirmed only bring mosaic produced in Bat Trang pottery from the late 16th century and lasted until the early 20th century.
Censer carved inscriptions, Du Fu family production at the end of the 16th century mosaic class shown on the lower part of the second round censer can see the template earliest ceramic mosaic. Men ivory colored gray reef cracks running vertical and horizontal split into triangular, quadrilateral.
Candlesticks by "Do Bat Trang commune government" created created circa 1600-1618, in which the entire mosaic from the mouth to the foot, yellow dentin, enamel stretch of road just cracked black. The pair of this kind mosaic decorative moss floating, mosaic outside the no other enzyme, which is the standard template mosaic of Bat Trang in the 17th century.
18th century also produced Bat Trang ceramics have records dating mosaic. Peak ceramic mosaic built in 1736, greyish-white mosaic. One other top ceramic mosaic, with lid, body and sole, made circa 1740-1768 to use ivory yellow mosaic ... Men reefs are also used in various types: golden bamboo candlesticks; warm cap, the cap covers, pair listeners.
The 19th century, the ceramic mosaic line continued development, besides the use of combined mosaic decorated with blue paint. On the pottery, artisan Bat Trang are embossed, engraved or decorated, greyish-white mosaic.
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